How is the solar panel manufactured till fitted at your place?
The technology which is cost saving for you, is it economical in itself? Let us look at the science behind the energy.
The solar panels are the revolutionary outcome of the manufacturing process using silicon that is used to convert sunlight into usable form of green energy which is inexpensive, sustainable, effective, and efficient and saves cost as well as preserves the environment.
The manufacturing process of the solar panel is fascinating and as we know, it all begins with something.
It is needless to say that cell is fundamental and basic unit of life. Similarly, the life of solar panels also resides in the cells they are composed of known as solar cells. They are crafted from silicon which is a non-metal with semi-conduction properties. The individual cells are connected together to form solar panel. Surely the terms ‘cell’ and ‘nonmetal’ recollects the old school days. And if it does, then do a small activity and try recalling the atomic number. Let us tune ahead. So, Silicon helps in initiating the flow of electricity and the phenomenon is called ‘photovoltaic effect’.
However, silicon isn’t the mere component involved in the process, there is more to it.
The main components are rubber or vinyl back sheet, aluminum frame, metals, glass, and silicon and they are compiled to form solar panel. At structural level they are classified as monocrystalline, polycrystalline, and thin film solar panels depending upon the materials used in the manufacturing, like Mono silicon, polysilicon and amorphous silicon respectively. However, they all have different efficiency in terms of performance.
Let us understand the process microscopically.
The most common element found in the earth crust is Silicon.
But it isn’t available in the pure form; instead, it is available in the form of Quartz or silicon dioxide in the sand and sandstones. However, its widespread availability and low cost isn’t the sole reason for its usage but the property of semi-conduction it has, which is instrumental in generating electricity because it can give a positive and negative charge by being crafted as p-type and n-type solar cells. However, the process of conversion of sand into high grade silicon is high priced and energy intensive process which is extracted at high temperatures in an arc furnace.
we need to extract the high-grade silicon in the manufacturing plant.
Since the collected silicon is in the form of solid rocks as we cannot find silicon in the purest form. They are subjected to high temperatures in order to form ingots in cylindrical shape. The Impure molten silicon is formed from melting down the quartz in the high furnace extracting oxygen. Then the pure silicon is obtained by passing a rod of impure silicon repeatedly through the middle of the molten silicon. All the impurities are dragged and gathered at one end of the rod. The impurities are then removed leaving the pure molten silicon.
Since the purest form is an insulator, it has to be converted into semiconductor by undergoing a process known as doping that gives it positive and negative charge. In p-type doping gallium or boron is added to silicon, giving positive electrical polarity and phosphorous is added in the bottom layer forming wafers known as silicon ingots.
In a tube furnace it cools down as cylindrical ingots. Attention is given during melting so that all the atoms are in the desired structure and orientation. Mono-crystalline solar panels consist of one silicon fragment and polycrystalline solar panels are made from many silicon fragments melted together in one large sheet.
After the p- type doping it’s time to apply the negative charge or the N- type doping.
The silicon ingots are then cut into thin sheets known as wafers and then phosphorous or arsenic is added to the surface of the wafers.
So, this makes the top most layers negative and leaving behind the rest of the surface positively charged. The sheets are as thin as a paper. This junction p-n is now ready to generate electricity. An anti-reflective coating like silicon oxide or titanium dioxide is added to the silicon wafer because pure silicon is quite shiny in its natural form and it nearly reflects 35% of the sunlight that hits the surface.
Wafer is then converted into solar cells in this step.
Metal conductors are added into the surface during the treatment. A grid like matrix is developed on the surface of the wafers after the addition of the metals or the conductors. They allow the absorption of the sunlight and thereby conversion of solar energy into electricity. Moreover, the p-n junction acts as the initiator for the generation of the electricity.
The last and the big step is the building of the solar panels from the solar cells. By using metal connectors, they are soldered or grouped together and creating a matrix like structure. It allows the travelling of electricity between the solar cells and into the inverter. Then it is covered by rubber or vinyl from the backside which is highly durable and prevents water, soil, and other materials from entering the panels from the back and then a 6-7 mm glass layer is added in the top and a junction box on the side to enable connections inside the module. To protect the solar panel and its easy mounting on the roof aluminum frame is added to the panels. And the frame is assembled that provides protection against impact and weather.
The standard offering used currently in the market is:-
The panel is put in a flash tester at the manufacturing facility.
Once the assembling is done the modules are tested to ensure that they work under the standard condition that is reference point. The tester will deliver the equivalent of 1000W/m2 irradiance, 25°C cell temperature and an air mass of 1.5g. The results are mentioned on the technical specification sheet of every panel. They also go through harsh testing for weather conditions, wear and tear, heat etc. Other ratings are also mentioned in the technical specification sheets. They are tested for quality and strength before they are shipped. They are also discarded if any defects are found like cracks or bent solar panels.
The final steps are Inspection and cleaning before they are shipped to the final proceeding.
Although the manufacturing process is similar but the efficiency of solar panels is dependent on each type and they have their own comparative strength.
So, it is highly recommended to depend on professionally built solar panels because they go through rigorous standards of testing and hence prove out to be a reliable and durable solar panel. Engaging yourself with a professional Solar EPC company often serves as an advantage since they provide the quality assured solar modules with a long-lasting warranty of nearly 25 years. One of the highly acknowledged Solar EPC Company is Soleos which is based out of Ahmedabad and is widely known for its uncompromised services in solar panel installation and O & M.
We work with quality parameters and ensure its maintenance before delivery of our services. We are the perfect example of paradigm shift from use of conventional source to renewable source of energy.
Why choose us?
We offer full range of Solar modules manufactured in our unit that we use for the solar projects also they are supplied all over the country. We provide lasting warranty of our products which are excellent in performance even in low light. Our manufacturing facility is equipped with cutting-edge equipment and tools to produce the highest quality solar products. Fabrication, sourcing, quality testing unit and packaging, as well as distribution and marketing, are all part of the infrastructure.
Our process begins with the procurement of the highest quality raw materials, which we then transform into highly durable and useful products using our machinery. We use highly automated machine based on German and Italian technology. Long story short we are the most reliable choice available to you.
We help people build their solar assets. We could help you build yours too.